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Church History II

Dr. Gerald Bray

This course provides a detailed study of the Protestant Reformation, Puritanism, and various modern movements and events (including revivalism, the Enlightenment, fundamentalist-modern controversies, the Second Vatican Council, post-modernism and the rise of Global South Christianity.) In each era, key figures, confessions and themes are examined. Students gain familiarity with these eras by reading primary source texts, including Luther, Dordt Owen, Edwards, Kant, Barth, and Machen.



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Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The aim of the Council of Trent was to impose discipline on the Church generally. One problem was the secular states of Europe had to agree to ratify the decisions of the Council of Trent. France never ratified the decisions of the Council. An effect of the persecution of scientists such as Galileo was that Catholic countries ceased to be Intellectually productive. The reform of the calendar by the Council of Trent was accepted. Pope Gregory XIII instituted the Gregorian calendar which replaced...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Luther's theological thrust was justification by faith. Jesus became man, lived our life and died a human death for us. He acted for us by identifying with us. The Atonement is the reconciliation between God and man. Anselm, who wrote Cur Deus Homos, believed the Incarnation was key to understanding salvation. He believed that Jesus' death on the cross paid for every sin in the world. He also believed that unless the inheritance is claimed, you do not benefit from it. God is the only one who...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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This lecture follows the royal line of English kings through their efforts to gain politically in England, France and Spain. Enter the discussion on marriage and annulment with the convictions of what the Church taught at the time, Martin Luther, and those kings involved. Come to understand the reasons Henry VIII broke with the Roman Church.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Council of Trent determined that justification is not by faith alone but faith plus works The Catholic Church determined the Sacraments take effect if properly administered. Ex opereoperato (the work which is done) is the effectual use of the Sacraments producing a Christian. The Sacrament for Protestants is not automatically effective - it depends on the grace of God and work of the Holy Spirit in the heart of believers. For the Catholic Church, the Pope must be obeyed as the...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The building blocks of the medieval Church were the theology of Peter Lombard, Canon Law of Gratian, and the Papacy as Court of Appeal. The Church system centralized control to treat people equally. As the Church imposed its law on society, it came into conflict with the ancient tribal law of the states. Two hundred years before the Reformation there was a Reception of Roman Law. The result was that secular law was superior to the Church's Law on its own principles. The Church dealt with a...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Erasmus succeeded in changing the nature of biblical studies. Luther entered a monastery to get closer to God. Consider that God wants us to live with Him in eternity when we can give Him nothing and do not deserve to be there. The Christian life is a life of joy and struggle. The love of God can only be understood if you have experienced it.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Many Protestants from England fled to Frankfurt Germany. John Knox had gone to England because Scotland at the time was Catholic. Knox believed the Reformation could happen in Frankfurt. Knox wrote a tract against Queen Mary and her rule. Knox pushed through the Reformation while there was no regent living in Scotland. Queen Elizabeth resisted getting married so England would not become Catholic. The Pope excommunicated Queen Elizabeth since she did not marry and also directed true Catholics to...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Donation of Constantine gave the Pope the power to rule Rome and the Western Empire since Constantine went to Constantinople. In Spain, the Arabs were thrown out. In 1492, the last Arab stronghold fell in Spain and the Jews were also forced out of Spain. In 1450, printing was invented in western Europe. More political maneuvering is revealed in the history of the papacy.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The secular government became reluctant to send soldiers and money to Palestine for the Church. The King of France put his successor under house arrest. The new pope, Clement V, settled in Avignon, France. Isabella was married to King Edward II of England. The French did not want Isabella's son or the English king to be king of France. The beginning of the 100 Year's War was Edward III's claim to the throne of France. The war was fought entirely in France. The Pope was free to go back to Rome....
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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England was different from other countries partly due to its island geography. The king controlled what went on in the country and was able to tax regularly to raise revenue. Follow the intrigue and conflicts of the royal throne and its connection to the Church.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Calvin taught the work of Christ in the context of Prophet, Priest, and King. Because of Christ, the principles of Christian life can be seen in the Old Testament. The wilderness journey of the people of Israel is identified with the Christian life. Calvin's view is called the Third Use of the Law. The death of Christ made a full, perfect satisfaction for sin. There is no sin so bad that Jesus cannot forgive. A new relationship with God is the basis of our assurance as Christians. Our assurance...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Anabaptists grew out of a reaction to the teaching of Zwingli. Anabaptists can be traced back to Millenarianism which had existed in the early Church. Joachim da Fiore brought Millenarianism back to life in the 12th Century. The Millenarianists viewed the illegitimate Popes as the antichrist after Joachim died and the papacy was moved to Rome. The Brethren of the Common Life was a family enterprise and were not monastic. They created an alternative society. Anabaptists viewed pacifism as a...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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John Calvin studied under Martin Bucer. Calvin agreed to stay and work out how to secure the Reformation in Geneva. Cardinal Sadoleto urged the people of Geneva to return to Catholicism and debated Calvin. Calvin exercised control by Church discipline. He did not believe heretics should be put to death and objected to the town council's decision to execute Michel Servetus as a heretic. Consider that the Christian experience was at the heart of everything Calvin said and did. He held that a...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Roman Church and the Pope in Rome were under threat due to the Reformation. The idea that reform was needed penetrated into Rome. The Council of Trent met off and on from 1545 -1563. The Protestants refused to go for fear of their arrest for heresy and that they would be burned at the stake. The Council determined that Scripture and Tradition are equal and parallel authorities. They determined that the Latin Bible was to be the only official text. The Apocrypha was declared to be canonical...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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It is during the reign of Pope Alexander that young Martin Luther visits Rome. Complicated rules were designed on how the tithe was to be calculated. Consider that the word "farm" comes from the term used for the tract of land scheduled for tithe. The problem was that the potato was not taxable. For Spain, the conquest of America was an extension of the Crusades. Opposition to Luther was strongest in Spain. In 1540, Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits to counter the Reformation. In...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Mary and William invaded England and took control in 1688. Their takeover is called the Glorious Revolution. William and Mary gave Protestants religious freedom. Confessions of faith were drawn up in order to register with the State. In 1690, the Westminster Confession was made the official confession of the State for the first time. Scotland was set free to be Presbyterian. James II garnered an army and landed in Ireland. William defeated James in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. The modern...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Black Plague hit Europe around 1347 AD and killed one third to one half of the population. The Monasteries at the time had a lot of land which could not be farmed. Consider that the Church had failed to prevent the disaster and had been disproportionately affected by it. The underlying spiritual crisis was the most important crisis. People started to think there was something wrong with the Church. Reflect on the translation of the Latin Bible. The first Whitcliffe Bible was printed in...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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At this point, the English Reformation started in a serious way. Cranmer permitted people to receive both the bread and wine in Communion and permitted clerical marriage. He wanted to introduce the idea of justification by faith. Cranmer rewrote the worship service adding justification by faith as he translated it into English. The Anglican Church makes worship a part of its doctrine. Protestants determined to dress like university professors with black gowns and academic hood. Queen...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Calvin in many ways shifted the pattern of theological discourse. The Cross for Calvin was Christ fulfilling His Covenant offices. The name Christ means "The Anointed One". The three type of people anointed in the Old Testament were prophets, priests, and kings. No one is found in the Old Testament anointed in all three offices. These offices are fulfilled in Christ.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Luther was against political revolution. He has been criticized for not supporting the peasants. He wanted spiritual renewal to be distinguished from social reform. He was against the view that the Sacraments were only symbolic. He did not want Christian freedom to be used in a way that dishonored God.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Explore that Bucer held that the promise of God is given in and through baptism. He believed a person could receive the promise but not receive the benefit. Baptismal Regeneration means you receive salvation at baptism if you chose it or not. Divine election is the work of God's love in your life. Bucer held that the Doctrine of Election was life-giving and liberating. The Doctrine of Election at the time of the Reformation was a socially revolutionary doctrine.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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The Latin Bible and language had been accepted as the official text for the Church. The problems with the Latin Bible are mostly due to misunderstanding. The Catholic Church defended itself against Protestantism by defining the Bible. The Council of Trent defined what books were the Bible and the it was at this council that the Apocrypha was declared Canonical.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Whitcliffe was condemned by the pope in Rome. The Crusades had been in Spain as Christians pushed the Arabs back southward. Aristotle's notion of science had been accepted. The Consecration of the bread and wine came under discussion. Anyone could change the form of the bread and wine. The accidents can be changed without changing the substance. In the Consecration, the priest had changed the underlying substance. Celibacy became reinforced. Ordination became the giving of power. Jan Hus raised...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Queen Elizabeth's guiding principle was comprehensiveness to keep as many happy as possible. The church she established was Calvinist. The Protestants accepted the Elizabethan Settlement. The basic problem for the English Reformation was its lack of discipline. The Books of Homilies were used in the Church of England. Lectureships were set up for newly trained preachers. Church ales were used for the repair of the church building. After Elizabeth's death, James VI issued a decree called the...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Explore that persecution of middle east Christians by Muslims started at the time of the Crusades. St. Benedict of Nursia had laid down a rule for monasteries to follow about 500 AD. Schools were established where law and theology could be studied and a method of questions and answers was used. Peter Lombard was the first systematic theologian in the Christian Church. He wrote curriculum for ministerial training and believed ministers must know the Apostle's Creed and Doctrine of the Church....
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Peter Lombard arranged topics in new ways and invented the seven sacraments which include Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Communion, Penance, Extreme Unction, Matrimony, and Holy Orders. Consider that matrimony and Holy Orders were mutually exclusive. The seven sacraments were used for memory and teaching. St. Dominic believed one should also preach on street corners. Francis of Assisi gave away his wealth and became a beggar. Consider that friars were freelance monks. Thomas Aquinas saw himself as...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Calvin taught that the Trinity must be understood as a community of Persons bound together in love. He held that the presence of the Holy Spirit in one's life is a full experience of God. It is possible to be spiritual without being godly. There is no aspect of life not to be consecrated to the service of God.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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In 1625, Charles I succeeded James VI upon his death. Charles was a man of high culture and persecuted people for wrong dress. He was more attracted to Catholicism than was wise for a person in his position. Charles married a French princess who was Catholic. In France, unlike England, there was a Protestant population. The Reformers were never able to seize control of the government in France. France was riven by civil war in the Wars of Religion for over 30 years. In 1598, Henry IV passed the...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Luther came to an understanding of justification by grace through faith from his own study of the Bible. Luther's 95 Theses was intended to start an academic debate. The Pope felt his authority and revenue was threatened. Luther's friends took him away for his safety. It was during these three years, Luther translated the Bible into German and worked out his theological ideas. Luther believed justification by faith is "the article of the standing or falling church."
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Calvin's theology included the sovereignty of God. Nothing that happens is accidental nor contrary to the will of God. Theodicy is the goodness of God. If God places us in a suffering situation He will give us the strength to deal with it. Calvin's theology also included the sufficiency of Scripture. The underlying principles are in the Bible for all issues that matter.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Charles was executed for treason and became a martyr. Cromwell and Parliament could not manage the peace because not enough people believed they were legitimate. Richard Cromwell resigned after a short time. The army took over and brought back the king in 1660, Charles II. Charles II believed in toleration but also believed in law and order. It was at this time that the Anglican Church as we know it today came into being. Many people were fed up with fighting about religion. The idea formulated...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Menno Simons (1496-1561) established closed communities. He laid down very strict rules for marriage. Shunning was the Mennonite equivalent of excommunication. When Rutgers' wife would not leave him during a marriage crisis, the Mennonite camp was split. The liberal side of the Mennonites were seen to be compromising with the world. The persecution caused them to flee and Russia became the place to go for most of the persecuted Mennonites. One group of Mennonites lived in a part of Holland...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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William Tyndale was born in 1494 and was in Oxford when Martin Luther's 95 Thesis was nailed up at Wittenburg. In England it was illegal to translate the Bible. Tyndale began to translate the New Testament into English under Luther's direction. He put more emphasis on the Covenant in his Bible preferences. Tyndale is the Father of the English Bible but was never recognized as such. The Reformation in England was a king's policy, not a popular theological movement. Henry VIII would not...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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What does it mean to live the Christian life? Half of John Calvin's Institutes are devoted to the Christian life. Bucer held that a person was sanctified by grace through faith. He had to find a middle way on the sacramental question. Luther believed at baptism, the Holy Spirit went into that person's life. In Communion, Luther believed Christ is received into the person's life. Luther's view of the Sacraments caused people to ask why they did not always make Christians. Zwingli held that the...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Did Christ die for sins or sinners? If you believe he died for sins, then you have to be a Universalist. If you believe that he died for sinners, then you have to believe in limited atonement. Consider that If Jesus has died for you, you cannot resist the sovereignty of God. Jacobus Arminius held that it is possible to fall in and out of grace. He believed that people are not totally depraved but have free will. The Calvinist Church in Holland became alarmed when Arminius' followers pushed his...
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Gratian was a contemporary of Peter Lombard. He wrote The Decretum or The Discordance of Discordant Canons. Explore how Canon Law developed into case law and was used by the Church for control. Canon Law was regarded as a supplement to the Bible. The Reformers argued against the Canon Law as equally authoritative to Scripture. Gratian set up a system of courts and procedures and succeeded in establishing the Papacy as an appellate court. Luther, after the Reformation, burned the Canon Law books.
Church History II
Mar 18, 2015 Dr. Gerald Bray
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Consider that Luther was primarily concerned with salvation. Zwingli's concern was the sovereignty of God. He worked with the town council in Zurich to bring about social change. Zwingli believed that with the new life in Christ, society should change. Martin Bucer also played a key part in the Reformation. Bucer developed a Protestantism that was influenced by both Luther and Zwingli.